The nest gets its power from your furnace it will only be the voltage put out from your circuit board, usually 5 volts. It does not require power from a receptacle. You need to confirm that your furnace is compatible with your nest first using their online comparability chart.
the nest has an internal battery but it needs a constant 24v low voltage power source usually supplied by the heating/cooling system. I have an older central heat/AC system that did not supply power (used the old round mercury switch) and got a 1st gen Nest to work by feeding it power through a 24 v door bell power transformer (made for a hard wired door bell) purchased at Home Depot. But most systems made in the last 15 or so years will supply the power needed in the wiring loom.
Nest has a wonderful customer service that will be the best with your questions. However, I may be wrong but I don't know any thermostat that requires even 110 volts. So I'm not an expert but would say no. But a call to Nest will answer. Most heater/air cond. have a low voltage and/or a low voltage transformer that run the thermostat, The transformer may be a higher voltage but it is stepped down to run the thermostat,